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Money , Capital And Currency As assets.

Money, currency, and capital assets are the subjects of study in the academic field known as finance. It is similar to, but not the same as economics, which is the study of how resources like money, property, and consumer goods are created, moved around, and consumed (the discipline of financial economics bridges the two).


categories of finance

  • Personal finance,
  • Business finance,
  • Government finance

are the three broad categories that can be used to categorize the activities that take place in financial systems. 

Money and Finances in Your Own Life ( Personal Finance)

Individual circumstances and actions determine the nature of one’s personal finances. Accordingly, one’s income, necessities, goals, and desires should all be taken into account when formulating a plan for one’s financial future. Personal financial planning entails taking stock of one’s current financial situation and then making plans to meet one’s future needs while staying within those constraints. 

For instance, people need to put money aside for their retirement. Which means they need to put away enough money during their working years to support their retirement goals. Managing one’s own money is a matter of personal finance. Use of or investment in personal financial products like credit cards, insurance, mortgages, and investments is just one aspect of personal finance.

Individuals’ use of banking services, including checking and savings accounts, and electronic payment systems like PayPal and Venmo, is regarded as part of their personal financial management. 

Money Management in Corporations ( Business Finance )

To put it simply, corporate finance is all about the money. These fiscal duties are typically delegated to a separate department. A large corporation, for instance, may need to decide between issuing bonds and selling stock to the public in order to finance expansion. The firm may seek counsel from investment banks for guidance on these matters and marketing assistance for the securities. 

Angel investors and venture capitalists are two sources of funding for new businesses, with the investors receiving money in exchange for equity stakes. If a company is successful and wants to raise capital, it will conduct an initial public offering (IPO) by selling shares to the public. 

On the other hand, a business with expansion plans may have to prioritize which projects to fund and which to shelve in order to allocate its limited resources effectively. Corporate finance encompasses all of these alternative courses of action. 

Government Budgeting and Spending Policies

Regarding taxation, expenditure, budgeting, and the issuance of debt all fall under the umbrella of “public finance,” which determines how a government pays for public services. Specifically, it is a component of government spending plans. By monitoring resource allocation, income distribution, and economic stability, federal and state governments help prevent market failure. 

Taxes are the primary source of consistent funding, Government spending is financed in part through borrowing from banks, insurance companies, and foreign countries. A government has both social and fiscal responsibilities, in addition to managing day-to-day operations funding. 

It is the responsibility of the government to provide sufficient social programs for its taxpaying citizens. It must keep the economy steady so that people can save money with confidence. There is a distinction between financial services and financial products.